Bibliography: Social Media (page 111 of 144)

Bhola, H. S. (1973). Mass Media in Adult Education: Methodological Aspects of Media Research. Those involved in mass media and adult education in the Third World, including researchers in education, communication, and instructional technology, operators of mass media programs, and national policy makers, should regard themselves as change agents. In order to function effectively as such they must understand the methodological aspects of radio, film, and television at the levels of techniques, design, and policy. A system approach to the media which includes consideration of economic, ideological, socio-cultural, political, demographic and technological factors in conjunction with learner traits and objectives and instructional characteristics is the most useful organizing principle. In order to effect social change, media personnel must learn their tools, understand the media, focus on the message, produce their own programs, maintain pluralism, remain close to the culture, administer programs carefully, and follow up messages with social action. Researchers should concentrate upon reading available research, achieving efficient division of labor, and giving priority to research on the impact of media upon social behavior. Given all this, the mass media will be powerful tools for adult education.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Change Agents, Communications, Developing Nations

Pettey, Gary R. (1986). The Interaction of Social Motivation, Attention and Interest, and Public Affairs Media Use on Political Knowledge Holding. Examining the relationships among social motivations, media use, and levels of political knowledge, a study (1) measured the unique contribution of social motivations beyond simple exposure and individual motivations, (2) tested for interactions between social and individual motivations and public affairs exposure, and (3) examined the interactive relationships among the variables. Telephone interviews with 737 adults determined the perceived influence of mass media exposure on family, friends, and co-workers. These three social motivation types allowed the relationship between individual media patterns and the possible social motivations for those patterns to be examined. Findings showed that, although traditional individual level predictors were a significant influence, social level predictors should be taken into account when an individual's knowledge levels are being considered. Group interactions provided a significant control for all other variables. Results also indicated that the relationship between social and individual motivations is substantially additive and that public affairs exposure interacts with social influences. In addition, while increased public affairs exposure showed no corresponding increase in knowledge, findings showed that the media were able to transfer substantial amounts of information at lower motivation levels. Motivation, then, was the overall best predictor of knowledge. (Supplementary tables and appendixes are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Group Behavior, Group Dynamics, Knowledge Level, Mass Media Effects

Hoiberg, Eric; Swope, Cliff (1979). Farmers Perceptions of Extension Effectiveness: An Iowa Study. Interviews with 940 Iowa farm operators and their wives were conducted during 1977 to address the question of perceived extension effectiveness (the degree to which the respondent perceived the Cooperative Extension Service as meeting his/her needs). Two models of organizational effectiveness were advanced and suggested as being consistent with efforts to use the perceptions of actual and/or potential client groups as a method for determining effectiveness. Based upon an analysis of the perception, it became clear that extension was not suffering an "image crises" in that there was a rather consistent positive rating given across all items. While several variables such as fatalism, social participation, media usage, and extension contact were related to perceived effectiveness at a statistically significant level, the magnitude of the associations were not large. Other key variables, such as age, education, farm size, and cosmopolitanism were found not to be related to perceived effectiveness. Data tended to demonstrate that the independent variables selected were more consistently related to extension contact than to perceived effectiveness, although even these relationships were not particularly strong. The finding of little or no relationship has important implications for extension in the sense that there does not appear to be a clearly identifiable group that harbors a collective negative perception of extension effectiveness. Descriptors: Demography, Extension Education, Farmers, Needs Assessment

Austin, Bryn (1997). A Supplement to Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. A College Case Study. This case study was developed as a supplement to the U. S. Department of Education publication Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. Its purpose is to help readers get a feel for what is involved in setting up an evaluation of a college alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention program. Although Understanding Evaluation specifically addresses prevention work in secondary schools and presents a case example of the fictional Wood County School District to illustrate the evaluation process, the principles of evaluation discussed are applicable to schools at any level, including the college or university campus. The fictional Woodson College case study is a composite of the evaluation experiences of a number of colleges and universities woven together to help readers tailor the information in Understanding Evaluation to meet their own campus needs, In the case example, administrators at Woodson College instruct the director of prevention services to develop an evaluation plan for the Woodson's three AOD prevention programs. One program is a curriculum infusion project, the second is a social norms media campaign, and the third is a peer education project. Discusses and evaluates each of the three projects. Provides a partial list of publications and fact sheets/prevention updates available from the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrators, Athletes, Behavior Standards, Case Studies

Brown, Stephen; Margolis, Arlene (1980). A Brief Manual on the Building of a Neighborhood Coalition. Guidelines for the organization and operation of neighborhood development programs are provided, based on the experiences of a community coalition coordinated by Northern Essex Community College (NECC). This neighborhood development project attempted to provide staff support to local neighborhood associations, structure a coalition among the associations for greater political visibility, provide workshops on community problems, and conduct a survey of adolescent needs. The steps in the assessment of community needs are discussed first, including consultation with neighborhood leaders and organized community analysis research. The bulk of the manual examines 11 considerations in project organization and operation: yielding leadership to the neighborhood residents themselves; providing programs which are beneficial to the community at large, of which the neighborhood is only a part; acquiring staff trained in organizational development; providing flexibility in project agenda; utilizing the occupational know-how and life experiences of participants; planning for continued funding; helping neighborhood leaders manage time and delegate responsibility; broadening the base of the coalition through public relations; setting realistic goals; collecting data for government agencies; avoiding conflicts between member associations; and understanding the implications of using political, social, and media power. Descriptors: Community Colleges, Community Development, Community Study, Financial Support

North Carolina Central Univ., Durham. (1973). CUETEP: Central University's Elementary Teacher Education Program. The goal of North Carolina Central University's "new" program is to design a sequence of experiences that will prepare teachers who demonstrate their competence in terms of agreed-upon behaviors. The first component is divided into nine module clusters. The modules in the component relate to the job of the teacher, innovations which are precipitating changing roles for teachers, the teacher as a member of a profession with the responsibilities which a member of a profession has to his constituents and to his profession, the opportunities for supportive roles in education, research on teacher effectiveness and its measurement, and observation experiences. The second course includes three minicourses. One minicourse focuses on the historical and philosophical foundations, a second one is concerned with the sociological foundations, and the third centers on the modern elementary school. The senior semester teaching block contains simulated microteaching of specific strategies in the basic instruction areas (reading, mathematics, and social studies); media workshops to prepare teaching tools and visual aids; and role playing to solve social problems.   [More]  Descriptors: Competency Based Teacher Education, Elementary School Teachers, Microteaching, Performance Criteria

Burke, Ken (1992). Mythical Structures in Community Vision. To negotiate a balance between an ideological concern for society's historical-economic development and an understanding of the individual's need for a sense of self-realization, social theory researchers should look to B. Dervin's "gap theory model" of communication. Adapted from Kenneth Burke, it offers a dynamic means of understanding how society might move from a problem (individualism leads to a competitive society that engenders fissures such as violence and pornography), to a formulation of this problem (individual rights vs. community responsibility), to possible solutions (family and media role modeling structures that encourage personal maturity in the context of social accountability). Drawing on the mythological archetypes of C. G. Jung, social theorists argue that the health of the individual should not be confused with the cult of the individual. Proper ego development through challenges, triumphs, and supportive hero-based media tales is necessary to the maturation of community leaders. Society must develop methods of forming community consensus about what sorts of social structures, media contents, and governing principles are desirable. First, however, the patriarchal, Eurocentric heritage must be confronted; this history has left many alienated segments of society wanting some form of identity enhancement before being able to fully participate in a negotiated definition of mainstream Americanism. (The generic communication model, based on Burke's model of multi-image communication and Dervin's gap theory, is shown in Figure 1.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Research, Communication (Thought Transfer), Egocentrism, Feminism

Madden, John R.; And Others (1971). Rose Tree Media Social Studies Curriculum Evaluation. Final Report. The report describes the organization and implementation of an evaluation of the Rose Tree Media Social Studies Curriculum. A questionnaire designed to gather teachers' assessment required response to twelve sets of statements reflecting sound curriculum procedures. Teams of teachers constructed tests summarizing the curriculum of each year covered by team members. (Appendix 1.) Objectives of each year's work were interpreted from the curriculum guide and stated in behavioral terms. From these objectives, five examinations were constructed, for grades 2, 4, 6, 9, 12. (Appendix 2.) A standardized American History test was administered to all 11th grade students. Student opinions were gathered in informal sessions; an 11th grade student designed a research study to gather additional data. Six informal meetings were held with interested citizens. Conclusions indicated a need for clearly stated objectives (knowledge, skills, attitudes to be imparted to students). Structure of curriculum, teacher training in social science concepts, development of coordinated courses in American history, elective courses, and addition of Western Civilization courses are the six primary recommendations.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Tests, Course Evaluation, Course Objectives, Curriculum Development

Jussim, Estelle (1972). Confronting Our Media Biases: The Social Dimensions of Media Theory, School Libraries. Education's bias toward the printed word as the medium of instruction has sociological consequences. All the new forms of media should be used in instruction to break away from our print dominated society. (18 references) Descriptors: Educational Media, Educational Methods, Reading, Socialization

Pearce, Vickie; Lassiter, Cathy (1992). The Media/Social Studies Connection: Partnerships for Learning, Wilson Library Bulletin. Describes a high school project that won an award in the 1991 A&E (Arts and Entertainment) National Teacher Grant Competition. The program, which introduced art history into the U.S. studies curriculum, involved cooperative research, analysis of art in the local museum, group presentations, parental participation, and the production of a videotape. Descriptors: American Studies, Art History, Awards, Cooperative Learning

Gallagher, James J.; Sanders, Joseph (1981). The Social Scientist, the Media and Public Policy, UCLA Educator. Recognizes the media's influential position in policymaking. Compares two traditional approaches to involving social scientists in policymaking with a policy analysis approach for identifying strategies to deal with social issues. Considers the interplay between the mass media and policymakers, interest groups, the public, and policy analysts.   [More]  Descriptors: Information Sources, Mass Media, News Media, Policy Formation

Sokoloff, Michele (1987). Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns, Media and Methods. This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. Descriptors: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Adolescents, Alcoholism, Dropouts

Hawkins, Michael L.; Gaines, W. George (1973). The Efficacy of Tradebooks as Prime Social Studies Media for the Disadvantaged Elementary Student, Education. Authors contend that a viable alternative exists to the use of social textbooks which do not meet the needs of minority students. Descriptors: Disadvantaged Youth, Educational Media, Elementary School Curriculum, Minority Groups

Matabane, Paula W.; And Others (1986). Understanding Social Conflict: Media Reliance and Student Perspectives on the Struggle in South Africa. Recent research efforts have attempted to address the contradictory conclusions being drawn about the relative contribution of television and newspapers to citizen awareness of public affairs. The traditional view of newspapers' superiority has been challenged by those investigators who hold that the determinant factors rest with individuals–their motivation, their political orientation, and their ability to derive information from any source. Additional questions surround the difference between media exposure or use, and reliance or dependence upon those media. Some exposure may be passive, habitual, while other exposure is active, selective and analytical. All these factors are involved in the relationships between media use and social perceptions. This study examines the relationship between different measures of media use, reliance and social perceptions in the context of the continuing struggle in South Africa as reported in U.S. media. For black college students, media use and reliance play only a marginal role in the formation of impressions about the conflict. A reference list and six data tables are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Black Students, College Students, Conflict, Data Analysis

Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Kornreich, Toby; Klym, Mark; Leland, Karen (1998). Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative, Phase II Report. In 1996, drawing from religious, educational, social services, media, neighborhoods, nonprofits, and health-providing sectors of the community, the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI) was conceived. During Phase One of the initiative, the following seven points regarding prevention and prevention design strategies were assembled: (1) Violence prevention is about efforts to prevent or interrupt problems from developing into greater hardship and the need for more costly responses; (2) violence-prevention strategies are typically directed at young people and increasingly at their families and home situations; (3) prevention needs to start very early in life, perhaps as early as the first 2 or 3 years; (4) recognizing the full range of odds that have to be overcome such as childhood impulsivity, low self-esteem, incompetent parenting, and disorderly neighborhoods, effective preventative tactics will need to be intensive and multipathed, not quick and cheap; (5) the dedicated effort of all sectors of society is needed to prevent violence; (6) the track record for funding preventive measures is a "mixed picture"; and (7) the economic advantages of prevention are both persuasive and encouraging. Phase Two formulated a comprehensive violence-prevention strategy organized into five Work Groups: prenatal and early childhood, families, individual youth, neighborhoods and communities, and schools. After 4 months these Work Groups developed 13 major violence-prevention initiatives that revolve around five central themes and address violence prevention as follows: Fill the unsupervised "gap periods" for youth; strengthen youth support systems; strengthen parental support systems; guarantee "right start" services to all preschool children; and strengthen neighborhood assets and protective factors. Phase Three is the implementation plan designed to link the 13 initiatives to people and organizations who can provide further development and actualization. This book contains the action blueprint for Phase Three that is scheduled to commence in late summer 1998. Graphs and tables supplement the text by emphasizing major points of the developmental process and the Initiative itself. Includes a list of the Steering Committee, Advisory Group, and Work Group participants.   [More]  Descriptors: Antisocial Behavior, Crime, Crime Prevention, Elementary Secondary Education

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